About “The Great ScrumMaster”

“The Great ScrumMaster” was recommended to me during an Agile workshop I attended several weeks ago. The book is not thick which mainly introduces how to become a great ScrumMaster through building a self-organised team. As Linda Rising suggests in the foreword of this book, “this is a guidebook along the path, the way, for ScrumMasters and Agile coaches“. However, I reckon that it is not only applicable to the people who work as ScrumMasters but also to the entire Scrum team.

There are three parts of the content of this book I have divided into roughly as follows: the ScrumMaster role, team building and the toolbox including useful methods, models and techniques that can be employed to help the team become better. From the ScrumMaster’s point of view, “The Great ScrumMaster” interprets the responsibilities of this role explicitly which are all around team building. And it provides various relevant models and methods for ScrumMasters to analyse, plan and implement. The reason why this book could be applicable to all members of the Scrum team is that it can help members to understand the purpose of applying Scrum, clarify the goals of the team, and identify the current situations accordingly, so as to collaborate with the ScrumMaster efficiently and effectively.

At the beginning of the book, the author exposes a rather common but serious phenomenon that the ScrumMaster is usually deemed as a valueless role subconsciously. I suppose there are two situations that cause this kind of bias. First, the team does not have a deep understanding of Scrum. Second, the ScrumMaster does not help the team reveal any apparent improvements. As a result, the role of ScrumMaster becomes formalistic and bureaucratic and may even turn to be mixed with other roles. For example, there is a person who works as the ScrumMaster, in the meantime, as the Product Owner of the team. In this manner, there would be a great conflict between business needs and team self-awareness.

This brings up a quite interesting topic, whether the ScrumMaster needs to be responsible for delivery. In this book, the author states that the ScrumMaster only needs to serve the team and determines the team’s self-organization as the ultimate goal (while I have some different understandings on this point of view, and I will explain it separately in another post). However, I cannot agree more about that encouraging self-organization is the ultimate goal of the ScrumMaster. In the Agile Principles, it is mentioned that “the best architectures, requirements and designs emerge from self-organising teams“. Only if the self-organised team owns the competency to accomplish the work and meet its goals efficiently and effectively. Additionally, there is a fact that needs to be highlighted:

Every self-organised team is self-organised only inside the given boundaries.

As I mentioned in An Overview of Agile, Agile is a set of ideological values that can not only improve productivity but also contribute to a better working environment. However, we should be aware that it would be impossible for teams and organisations to become Agile without applying any rules due to the complex circumstances. In fact, the widely-used Agile frameworks, like Scrum, have been proven as the powerful approaches to contribute to Agile culture. Therefore, defining boundaries is necessary for any Agile teams or organisations in order to achieve the values of Agile. With regard to the boundaries of Scrum, Zuzi (the author of “The Great ScrumMaster“) suggests “Scrum boundaries are determined by the process – limited by Sprint Goals, Backlogs, and delivering working product at the end“.

Scrum is not a methodology – it is a pathway.

Ken Schwaber (2005)

I always believe that a great ScrumMaster can be deemed to a great parent who takes the right way to educate their kids. Normal parents only teach their children in a way that they understand or feel is correct, but great parents will guide and facilitate their children according to the different stages of the children and current deficiencies. Kids will always grow up. It is very difficult to face this world independently if they always live under the protection of their parents. This view also coincides with the author of this book.

Unless the ScrumMaster gives the team the opportunity to take over these tasks, she ends up as their ‘mother’ who is so loving and caring that her ‘kids’ are low-confidence grown-ups, dependent on her even in their thirties

So, A Great ScrumMaster should

  1. believe in Agile and Scrum.
  2. believe in people.
  3. be a servant leader.
  4. focus on observing and listening first.
  5. aim to encourage self-organisation.
  6. try to change the world to be better.






就像之前说过的我最开始的误解,让我一度认为整个故事中的每一次有关于“黑暗”的描写都有一个共同的隐喻,因此我还特地计算了一下“黑”在小说中出现的次数。虽然这个黑暗最终被男主的失明所定义,但整个故事本身展现的是从一种“黑暗”到另一种更加“黑暗”的过程。欧比纳斯那无趣的生活是黑暗的,因此他在黑暗中被玛戈的手电筒照亮。可这光给他带来了是短暂的明亮,以至于将其指引到更加黑暗的地方 – 家庭破裂,女儿夭折,倾家荡产,车祸失明,以及最终的死亡。所有人心中总有一片黑暗出现的时候,也总会有“一束光”的出现,一束“贪婪”的光的出现。那些诸如欧比纳斯的人们抵挡不住它的诱惑,即使知道光的尽头是更加恐惧的黑暗,却总幻想在下一步时自己一定能坚定地停下脚步。这让我想到爱德华兄弟小时候的错误选择,不惜触犯禁忌打开真理之门来尝试复活自己的母亲,可最终面对的是真理之门前来自神的玩笑,并付出了惨痛的代价。书中最后也提到了“代价”,欧比纳斯认为自己最终承受的痛苦来自自己犯下的那个愚蠢的错误,这就是他所要付出的代价。如果他在第一次想一枪杀了那个女孩的时候扣动扳机该多好。




















这里我想特别说明一下我对罗佳“善良”这一品格的看法。首先先把我认为的占最少部分的善良罗列一下:1. 罗佳在送水果软糖回家后离开前给他们一家留下了一把铜币,虽然他马上因为考虑到自己的处境而感到后悔,但又想到索尼娅和他们一家的情况,最后还是认为自己的做法是正确的;2. 掏钱为差点被侵犯的年轻姑娘叫马车;3. 去找拉祖米欣的路上喝醉酒在灌木丛中做的梦:孩童的他遇见众人在折磨一只拉着大车的小母马,罗佳对于母马的遭遇十分不忍;以及在别人口中所提及的之前在火灾中救人等等。但在我看来,其中一半的善良并非值得称赞的事情,至少包括全部慷慨解囊的故事。正如书中所描述的社会背景以及拉斯科尔尼科夫的出身,他的家庭并非富裕,甚至可以说是贫困潦倒。他的父亲早已过失,母亲靠着政府一年发的一百多卢布生活,妹妹因为工作受到误解和诬陷,最后甚至差点被迫嫁给了一个彻头彻尾的混蛋,罗佳自己也只能苟活在一间“船舱”里并且长期拖欠房租。可反观罗佳,他拿着妹妹和母亲挤出来的钱不顾后果地救济他人,甚至施舍给一面之缘的妓女。我当然认为乐于助人是美好品德,也认为那些为了他人无私奉献自己的人十分伟大值得尊敬。但罗佳在帮助那些“需要帮助”的人时从未考虑过自己周围的人,并且每次的“帮助”都是那么不顾后果的“大方”。难道为了救助别人而理直气壮拖欠房租的人、为了帮助别人而让自己的家人受苦的人、为了帮助别人而连朋友的救助都不值得感恩的人值得值得称赞他的善良吗?









  • “人在病态中的梦境往往异常鲜明、清晰,并且与现实生活惊人地相似。有时会出现极其可怕的情景,但这情景及整个发展过程却如此真实可信,并且带着一个个如此逼真准确、出人意料而又很艺术地与整个情景十分吻合的细节,以致做梦着即使是像普希金或屠格涅夫那样的艺术家,在醒着的时候也无法构想出这样的细节。”
  • “只要喝一杯啤酒,吃一小片面包干,立刻就会精神健旺,思路清晰,意志坚强”
  • 谵妄:一种以兴奋性增高为主的高级神经中枢急性活动失调状态,在仪式清晰度降低的同时,出现定向力和自我认识障碍,并产生大量的幻觉、错觉。临床主要表现为意识模糊、注意力变差、定向力丧失、感觉错乱、躁动不安、言语杂乱、睡眠-清醒周期混乱,常常伴随着妄想(例如相信有人要害他)、幻觉(例如看到不存在的东西,过世的亲友)。这是卡斯科尔尼科夫在杀害伊万诺夫娜姐妹且昏睡醒来后的 状态。
  • “胡说八道是人类在所有生物中享有的唯一的特权。胡说八道是通向真理的途径!”
  • “最后便使出了堪称万应灵丹的一个征服女人心的最高明的绝招,这个绝少从不会让任何人失望,而且对任何人都绝对管用,无一例外。这个绝招五人不知,它就是阿谀奉承。” (21世界有一个新的词汇用来形容这种绝招:舔狗)








  1. “一个人如果‘只为公司而活’,那么他的人生实在太狭隘了”
  2. “管理者受企业委托管理,同样应当履行其社会责任”
  3. “针对每个政策和每个决定,企业管理者都应该自问:如果产业界的每个人都这么做,大众会有什么反应?如果这种行为代表一般的企业行为,会对社会大众产生什么影响?”
  4. 企业对社会的其中一个责任:“不可以对公民不当施压,要求员工绝对的忠诚”
  5. “公司不能自称(绝对不可自称)是员工的家、归宿、信仰、生命或命运。公司也不可以干预员工个人的私生活或者员工的公民权”
  6. 等等。



Efficient vs. Effective

One of the Principles of Agile Manifesto is:

The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face communication.

When I try to keep memorise these principles, it’s always the best way to understand the real meanings of each of them in practice before keeping them in mind. However, these two words, ‘efficient’ and ‘effective’, have confused me for a while. One reason is that they both represent the meaning of ‘with great effect’ in Chinese when I use most translation applications. So let’s grasp the distinction between them.

First of all, the definitions of them in Oxford English Dictionary are shown below.


achieving maximum productivity with minimum wasted effort or expense.


successful in producing a desired or intended result.

We can see that ‘efficient’ is used to describe a kind of status of the process, while ‘effective’ focuses more on the result.

Then, based on it, these two words may be easily associated associate with ‘Doing the right things and doing the things right’ literally. In this manner, we can say ‘doing the right things’ is effectiveness and ‘doing the things right’ is efficiency. However, when you are doing the right thing, you cannot 100 per cent sure that you are doing it well. Also, when you are doing a thing well, it doesn’t mean that this thing is meaningful to you. There are some examples presented as following.

  • With his power, Mumen Rider could not transport all injured people to the hospital effectively, while organised rescue operations efficiently.
  • Genos can effectively defeat the monster with his trick, but he needs to spend a lot of time to accumulate energy to use the trick, which is not efficient.
  • Saitama has become too powerful as that he can defeat any monster in the most efficient and effective way – just with a single punch.

In addition, I also found the episode Effective – Efficient. They mean different things in English, which is very helpful to understand the meanings of ‘efficient’ and ‘effective’.

Risk Management for Bilibili(2019) – Exploring a Risk Management Plan

All reference resources used are before 2019, the ‘current’ mentioned below refers to the beginning of 2019, and the ‘future ‘refers to the second half of 2019 and beyond.

As I mentioned in the previous post, we can see that the company has always placed content in a critical position. On the other hand, there were many incidents in the online entertainment industry that suffered from penalties because of content quality issues in China. Hence, the quality of the content is one of the clearest and urgent risks that could be encountered for Bilibili. In the following content, I attempt to use BowTie XP to explore current and improved risk management plans to reduce this risk respectively. And only some typical threats and consequences in each figure are introduced detailly.

Existing Risk Management Plan

the BowTie map of the existing risk management plan

The above BowTie figure indicates the causes and results of the content quality problem, according to the data, news, laws, government policies, company terms and so forth I have collected. Consequently, the hazard could be defined as ‘Operating the content in the platform’. And the top event is ‘illegal or inappropriate content posted’.


one of the threats

One of the most obvious threats I set introduces that ‘content providers ignore or comply with the requirement intentionally’. In one of the cases that would lead to this situation, some content creators would like to have more traffic by posting illegal content. In order to handle the problems, Bilibili set up the membership exam from 2013, which means only the users pass this exam, then they can upload content. And another barrier indicates that only certified content providers can upload the specific type of content, such as political information.


one of consequences

One consequence is if users saw inappropriate content, they may reduce their engagement and loyalty. For example, a well-known former poster of Bilibili was exposed in the video content and comments he posted in 2018 that there were several sexual harassments and homophobic inappropriate information. This incident caused many users to doubt the website’s review and management mechanism at the same time as they resisted this poster. As a result, the platform was punished by relevant departments and its reputation was damaged. There are three barriers I found for this situation. Firstly, deleting this content as soon as possible. Secondly, Bilibili provides the report system. And the last measure is content providers who have posted illegal or inappropriate content would be sent to Xiaoheiwu temporarily or permanently to limit them to use the website.

Improved Risk Management Plan

the BowTie map of the improved risk management plan

The new risk management plan above has been improved based on the existing plan and multiple potential factors. So the hazard and event kept unchanged. Some new threats, consequences and the barriers could be found in the map, highlighted by red rectangles, that are introduced as follows respectively.


Threats of the improved plan – 1

Laws and regulations changing could be a threat. But for most normal companies, they don’t have enough money to form their own legal departments. Considering the growing number of users of Bilibili.com and the huge potential of its marketplace as mentioned in the previous post, the company should consider the formation of an internal legal department in the future to handle the risks by business growth.

Threats of the improved plan – 2

And some techniques could help to improve the efficiency of content review, such as artificial intelligence. 


Consequences of the improved plan – Part 1

For the consequences, in order to avoid losing money, the company could buy some business assurances, while the commercial assurance system is not perfect enough in China.

Consequences of the improved plan – Part 2

The worst consequence I can think of is Bilibili has to shut down the platform permanently. But I have no idea about how to make a barrier for it.

Risk Management for Bilibili(2019) – Identifying Risks

All reference resources used are before 2019, the ‘current’ mentioned below refers to the beginning of 2019, and the ‘future ‘refers to the second half of 2019 and beyond.


Based on the collected information, the four major risks of Bilibili are classified and shown as the mind map above. The arrows among them represent the relationship of influencing among each risk. The major risks have been identified and discussed as follows.

  1. Distribution of income. The company prospectus(2018) shows the percentage of profit from mobile games increased by year, which are 65.7%, 65.4% and 83.4%  of the total net revenue from 2015 to 2017 respectively. During this period, Bilibili did not invest much budget in the mobile games market, thereby the number and size of mobile games Bilibili owns were not large. In addition, all of those mobile games Bilibili owns were offered from third-party game developers and publishers. However, there were significant returns brought by mobile game products and services. Especially in 2017, two of the games have a particularly strong income, which accounted for 71.8% and 12.7% of the total revenue from mobile games. While revenue from mobile games fell back to 61.7% (103.7 million US dollar) of the total net revenue (168.1 million US dollar), it increased by 15% compared to the same period of 2017 (90.2 million US dollar) (according to the data from Bilibili Investor Home). 
  2. Technology competence. A recent study(Kang et al., 2015) shows that it is widely believed that the Internet is a simple service system due to the degree of cash technology education. This allows users to carry more privacy protection options in the absence of understanding. Hence, any mistakes in platform network security can have a significant adverse impact on our business, operations and reputation, given the extreme trust of such users. Technologies could support operations and review content, reducing risk due to operational errors or content non-compliance.
  3. Monitoring by the regulators. There were two events of penalties by the Chinese government in the history of Bilibili, which happened in 2012 and 2018 respectively (Hangzhou Municipal Bureau of Culture, Radio, TV, Film, Press and Publication Bureau, 2012 and The China Media Project, 2018). The reasons for them were both because of the violation of the regulations. Therefore, if the videos, games and other content formats in the Platform are deemed to be in violation of any laws or regulations of the People’s Republic of China, the business, financial condition and results of operations of Bilibili may be materially and adversely affected.
  4. Quality of content provided in the platform. the prospectus of Bilibili (2018) points out that the PUG content attracts more users to the platform. In 2017, PUG video views accounted for 85.5% of its total video views, compared with 74.5% in 2016. However, the quality and quantity of the PUG content cannot be controlled effectively because the content is produced by users. The quality of the content will affect the number of users. Once the number of users declines, the company’s revenue will be affected. Moreover, the quality of the content also affects the regulatory results of government regulators, community culture and brand reputation. These aspects will directly affect the company’s revenue and development.





Risk Matrix

There are reasons for the positioning of each risk as follows. 

  1. Distribution of income. As mentioned above, the revenue from mobile games accounted for a significant proportion of the total net revenue from 2015 to 2018. However, Bilibili has built a partnership with a number of famous game developers since 2018, such as GREE and Tencent.
  2. Technology competence. The population of active users of Bilibili has been over 77.5 million per month since 2018 (according to Simple investor). If the service is unavailable or security issues due to technical reasons, the company’s revenue and reputation will suffer huge losses. However, Bilibili mentions that there is almost no such problems have occurred since the operation of the platform.
  3. Monitoring by the regulators. Two serious penalties occurred in the company’s history, resulting in property damage and platform rectification.
  4. Quality of content provided in the platform. Bilibili announced that the size of the content acceptance team would be increased. However, even with a large number of manual acceptance, there is no guarantee that the quality of a large amount of content will be fully guaranteed.

Risk Management for Bilibili(2019) – Overview

This is actually a study topic in my master’s period. The relevant course is about business risk management, mainly by learning methods, frameworks of risk management and practise on real business projects or companies. Secondly, Bilibili, as an Internet platform that I have been using all the year-round and one of the ideal employment companies for me in the future, has become my research object in this practice. So I would like to introduce and review the contents of this meaningful practice (All reference resources used are before 2019, the ‘current’ mentioned below refers to the beginning of 2019, and the ‘future ‘refers to the second half of 2019 and beyond).

Bilibili is the first iconic online entertainment brand for young people in the People’s Republic of China. The company has been providing a content community based on animation and professional user-generated (PUG) video since 2009 and went public in the US in 2018. Bilibili points out that their strategies are to improve the content offerings and user experience on the platform and to enhance technologies and other relevant capabilities. According to Bilibili’s only one clear mission which is to enrich the daily life of Chinese young people, their target market is the online entertainment industry and the user positioning aims for Generation Z, which refers to individuals born from 1990 to 2009 in China. iResearch shows that China’s online entertainment industry market arrived at RMB205.8 billion as of the end of 2016 and kept a growing trend. CNNIC presents the result that the number of Internet users who were aged 10-39 in China accounted for 75.0% of the total number of Chinese netizens by December 2017, which reached 579 million. Moreover, the market share contribution to the online entertainment industry of the major part of them who were born between 1990 and 2009 is expected to increase from 45.8% in 2014 to 54.8% in 2017. iQIYI is a leading online entertainment platform, operating the largest TV video streaming service in China. Alexa has revealed the result that the traffic rank of the iQIYI website is 30 in China, which is the closest rank to Bilibili website (17) as the online entertainment platform. Hence, iQIYI is one of the main competitors of Bilibili in the Chinese market.

Bilibili Inc. has been operating its main product which is an online entertainment website ‘Bilibili.com’. It mainly targets young users, with ACG(Anime, Comic, Game) as the main content in the early stage. After more than a decade of development, content themes now cover many areas, including music, movies, science and technologies, lifestyle, games, and more. Bilibili also offers live streaming services in the form of streamers. Typically the topic is anime, daily life, game strategy, etc. It is a remarkable fact that most of the content is created and uploaded by users independently, which guarantees the diversity and creativity of the content. Apart from hosting content, the core feature of Bilibili is a subtitle comment system which displays user comments as streams of moving subtitles on a video playback monitor which are visually similar to a shooter game by ‘Danmu’. That is the name of these subtitles in Chinese. These subtitles are simultaneously transmitted in real-time to all viewers and create an experiential chat room in which users want to watch and play together. This highly interactive viewing experience increases user stickiness greatly. Due to the good market positioning and these novel and attractive features, the number of users has kept growing year by year.

However, because of the continuously growing number of users and market demand, and other uncontrolled factors like the policy terms, challenges and uncertainties keep increasing as well. The company has a detailed discussion of these in the prospectus(2018). The following roadmap shows the structure based on the detailed content of the prospectus, and each node is indexed by the page number for reading easily.

The structure of Bilibili Prospectus(2018)

Common Communication Sentences in English




  • Hello.
  • Hi.
  • Good morning. / Good evening.

Greeting Questions

  • How are you?
  • How are you doing?
  • How are you feeling?
  • How are things going?
  • How have you been?
  • How is everything?
  • What’s up?
  • What are you up to? / What have you been up to?
  • How do you do?
  • How do you fare?
  • How are you getting on?
  • Are you well?

Showing own opinions

  • I reckon…
  • As far as I can tell,
  • As I see it,
  • I would say…
  • To me,
  • I feel that…
  • Personally speaking,
  • In my view,
  • To my mind,
  • As far as I’m concerned,
  • It seems to me that…


  • I owe you an apology for…
  • I take full responsibility for my action.
  • It was wrong of me.
  • It was thoughtless of me.
  • I sincerely apologise.
  • I hope you can forgive me.


  • Bye!
  • See you later. / See you soon.
  • See you. / See ya.
  • I’m heading off.
  • I’m going to make a move.
  • I must be going.
  • Take care.
  • It was nice to see you.
  • Stay in touch.

About my impression of English education in China

This was a serious question for me how to use ‘though’ or ‘then’ at the end of a sentence.

Cos all of my English teachers did not teach me about it before. You can see that at least in the period of my studying in China, the education system, the schools and the society did not pay more attention to improving students’ oral English skills. I can remember that before I attended my college, there was only one very odd method to do oral English practice, which was reading the English articles, together, in almost every morning. And the teachers always mainly focus on teaching English words, grammar and even the skills for answering questions of exams. Cos there is a very important exam series happens every year and the English exam only consists of listening, reading and writing, NO SPEAKING. Of course, every student would like to have a high score, so speaking? how cares. Even in my college academic life, every English exam has the same situations. Until I was preparing the IELTS exam, I found that it was so difficult for me to speak English. Maybe it was my fault, I did not study hard, while the English teaching style in China was definitely wrong, even if there are several reasons which lead to this result I could understand.

Anyway, now I can grasp that

though: however

then: therefore

when they are placed at the end of a sentence.

E.g. I really like living in Xiamen; there are so few opportunities to find a profitable job there though.